Seeds are required to be preserved for processing & for sowing in future. Seeds must be protected to keep its germination potential intact, the loss of germination potential of seeds means that seeds are no longer useful and is waste. The seeds are dried before they are stored. Seeds storage is a process of maintaining the seeds germination & vigor from harvest till its planting again. The purpose is to preserve physical condition of the seeds. Seeds are stored for a period between harvest & plantation and depend upon the period between harvest & plantation, the seeds storage period is defined. Seeds are also stored against any natural disaster as a contingency plan hence seeds for such purpose are stored for long term. Some seeds being seasonal hence storage/preservation of seeds is required till the season is back.
Seeds are stored for short term, medium term & long term. The storage conditions are different for all the three types of storages. Seeds storage required both temperature & Humidity control (RH).
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Optimal Conditions of storage
Short term storage: 70° ~ 75° F temperature & 25~30% RH
Medium term storage: 55° ~ 60° F temperature & 40~45% RH
Long term storage: 40° ~ 50° F temperature & 50~60% RH
Seeds are required to be dried before storing and is an important process. The moisture content present in seeds determines the quality & storability of seeds, the more the moisture content the less is the shelf life of seeds. Hence for all long term storages the moisture content in seeds are arrested to 4-6%, so that seeds can be protected for future and rate of deterioration of seeds is controlled.
Effect of not storing the seeds at proper condition:
Loss of germination potential
Fungus growth on the seeds
Replanting the seeds could be question
loss of viability
Factors to increase/enhance the shelf life & retain the germination potential of seeds:
Temperature control in seed stores
Humidity control in the seed stores
Moisture content control of the seed before & during storage
With the help of chemical dehumidifier the humidity can be controlled to the desired levels inside the stores. Dehumidifiers can be installed as stand alone or in combination of inbuilt AHU for temperature control.